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THE NIELLO WATCH CASE
ARTISTRY IN TIME
BY JAMES H. WOLF
Pocket watches are collected and admired for many reasons.
Mechanical ingenuity, accuracy of time-keeping and superior engineering
of the movements are aspects which lead to the value we place
on antique watches. There is also the artistic element which
is exhibited on beautifully engraved watch cases. Multi-color
gold cases have been eagerly collected for many years, and they
represent the pinnacle of American case production. Along with
fancy engraved gold cases and multi-colors, pocket watch cases
were also decorated with various forms of enamel. Enameled watch
cases were not produced by American factories except for some
scarcer examples which were generally from the earlier years
(pre-1900.) Larger gent's watch cases were rarely embellished
with enamel, and the ladies enamel cases were typically specialty
items which were produced for the European market.
Inspired by the great Art Nouveau and Art Deco movements,
a new type of ornamented watch case appeared in the early 1900s.
The niello watch case became a canvas for outstanding art works
that will likely never be duplicated. The term niello comes from
the Latin word nigellum that is the diminutive of niger (black.)
It was a technique used by the ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians
and Persians. Niello is a black or blackish-blue composition
of lead, silver, copper, sulfur and ammonium chloride. The mixture
is fused onto an engraved or cut-out metal base by firing the
mix in a process similar to champleve' enameling. Silver was
the most often used metal for niello objects since the soft white
silver color contrasted beautifully with the darker niello. Rose-gold
inlay work was also seen in combination with niello and tri-color
effects were achieved by the use of rose-gold, niello and silver
(Figure 1.) When the niello was heated and fired onto a silver
watch case, it actually fused with the silver very strongly,
almost as if it were soldered in place. The niello would be filled,
finished and polished, leaving the surface of the watch case
smooth and flat. One can readily assume that the process of engraving
the areas which were to be filled with niello, the firing stages,
and the finishing stages were very time consuming and therefore
costly. Aside from the production end, the niello cases also
had to be designed by artists who would pre-determine the subject
matter and then the cases were finished by engravers who produced
the fine details.
The American watch case factories were geared for a much more mass-produced, with stamping machines, engine turning machines, and case designs that were used over and over again. The costly niello cases were never produced in quantity by the American factories; however, a few factories or workshops in Switzerland did specialize in case manufacture with an emphasis on decoration and design.
These fine makers included the Huegenin Brothers of Le Locle (Figures 2a and 2b,) Duchene of Geneva, and Ed Favre of Le Locle. Longines of St, Imier also played a prominent role in the design and marketing of decorative watches during the early 1900s. Longine products not only have fine movements but the cases were always interesting and attractive in design. A very ornate engraving style known as taille-douce was used on solid gold watches of the period (Figure 3,) while niello was favored for the silver cases. The outstanding attention to detail that these fine Swiss houses showed was due in part to the watches being marketed to diverse cultures worldwide. The cases needed to have an instant appeal in order to catch the eye of a potential buyer. The engravings reflected this with designs and thematic material that were en vogue and very exciting and new for the time. The Art Nouveau and Art Deco influences were the main artistic impulses behind these rare niello cases.
The Art Nouveau period was rich in free flowing designs featuring
animals, flowers, and themes inspired by nature. The period began
in the early 1890s and was influenced by the symbolist movement
in art and literature. The Nouveau approach to art and design
emphasized figurative subject matter, imagination, and expressive
quality which contrasted with the older, more rigid, Victorian
A premier jewelry designed of the period was Rene' Lalique
of Paris. His creations were remarkable for their imagination.
The motifs most often used were based on nature, mystical design,
and exotic Oriental art forms.
Enamel was used by the artists of the Noveau period in a style
and manner that was new and exciting. The color range expanded
to include nearly every shade imaginable and techniques such
as plique-a-jour, niello, and champleve' were perfected by the
artists' of the period. The Art Nouveau movement also used symbolism
as a main part of the design (Figures 4, 5 and 6.) By using certain
figures from the natural or spiritual world, the art and jewel
objects took on an expressive quality that represented a certain
emotion or mood. Flowers were thought to have a language of their
own. The rose, for example, represented youth and beauty, while
the lily-of-the-valley was recognized as a symbol of happiness.
Animal figures were also associated with certain emotions. A
popular motif was the salamander, which was thought to be able
to live in fire and therefore became a symbol of passionate love.
Niello watch cases are unique in that they exhibit influences of both the Art Nouveau and Art Deco schools. The Art Deco period dated from 1925 to the 1940s and the designs emphasized geometric shapes, chromatic contrast, and linear styling (Figures 7 and 8.) With the discovery of Tutankhamen in 1922, designers began using scarabs, obelisks, and other motifs drawn from the ancient Egyptian arts. The Deco period was also a time when man became more and more fascinated with the new modern machines and inventions such as the automobile, plane, air balloons, trains, etc. (Figure 9.) These became focal points for many designs on niello watch cases. Sporting scenes and equestrian motifs were also very popular.
The value levels for niello enamel cased watches are based on both the design or subject matter and on the condition of the watch. In general, scenes and portraits will bring higher prices than cases with simple patterns, and hunter cases will be valued higher than open face cases. Like any enameled object, scratches, chips, and flakes will diminish value, while examples in mint condition will command a strong premium. Pocket watches were often carried on a daily basis and put in a pocket along with coins and other small objects, leading to damage and wear. A niello, in pristine condition, is a rarity and this condition is generally indicative of an "old stock" piece or one that was never carried.
The wonderful period of art design which lead to the development of the niello period quickly passed. By 1929, the world economy was effected by the Wall Street crash, and the pocket watch market was declining quickly. Much of the decline was due to the increasing popularity of the bracelet watch or wrist watch. Hunter case watches were the first to disappear and open face cases were not far behind. All of this leads to the fact that niellos, a representative form of an outstanding period in design, were produced in very limited numbers. We will never again see such a magnificent "niche" in the art of watch case design and decoration.
To own one of these magnificent time pieces please view our most recent, largest collection of Niello Pocket Watches we have ever had the pleasure to offer.
|Figure 3 "Taille-Douce" engraving.||Figure 4 Art Nouveau floral motif.||Figure 5 Art Nouveau Lady Liberty motif|
|Figure 6 Eagle with ribbon swirl motif||Figure 7 Art Deco dot pattern.||Figure 8 Art Deco wavy line style.|
|Figure 9 Automobile|