This grading system is property of  Antiquorum, Geneva Switzerland.  Antiquorum has given express, written permission to use their grading system.

The lots described in this catalog have been carefully examined and valued by Ashland’s experts and watch makers, taking into consideration the aesthetical, historical and technical interest, age and rarity, as well as the technology available at the time of production of each timepiece.

For such judgment to be as objective as possible, it must rest on a number of criteria, particularly with regards to the age of a lot. Indeed, a wrist watch of less than 50 years old cannot be judged with the same criteria as a Renaissance watch. This is the reason why some of the gradings will only qualify for certain types of watches and will never be used for others.

For example, if, as a general rule, watches can be attributed gradings from 1 to 4 for the case, the dial and the movement, watches of less than 100 years old can be given grading 1 (as new), 3 (in very good condition), or 4 (in good condition). The latter, (grading 4), will be followed by one or more grading numbers to justify why the lot cannot be considered “in very good condition”. On the other hand, watches over 100 years old, of similar condition, would indeed be considered as “very good” because of their age and would therefore quality for grading 3. Needless to say, watches over 100 years old, even the best state of conservation for their age, are unlikely to ever be considered “as new” and would therefore never be eligible for grading 1; for this reason, we have introduced grading 2 (in perfect condition).

At the end of each lot description, before the estimate, you will find a condition report box, with letters and numbers, divided into 4 sections: these are the grades given to the lot with reference to the condition of its case ¸, it dial and hands, its movement, and its rarity level-if applicable.

To understand the grades shown in the condition report box, consult the Grading System as follows:

C for the case, followed by one or more numbers = condition of case.

D for the dial (& hands), followed by one or more numbers = condition of dial & hands.

M for the movement, followed by one or more numbers = condition of movement.

Next to this condition report box, is an experts rarity box featuring one number from 1-10 as an overall rarity grade.

See example below:

C 1                                    D 1 - 01                                 M 1                             R 4
Case: as new                      Dial: as new - original hands     Movement: as new       Rarity Grade

    1 : as new    2 : in perfect condition      3 : very good       4 : good       5 : fair
 6 patinated
 7 slightly oxidized
 8 oxidized
 9 slightly scratched
10 scratched
11 deeply scratched
12 a dent 
13 2 dents 
14 multiple dents 
15 slightly worn 
16 worn 
17 very worn 
18 repolished edges preserved 
19 repolished edges altered 
20 back threading damaged 
21 period original 
22 later original 
23 period 
24 later 
25 custom-made 
26 replacements 
27 lacking elements 
28 transformations 
29 alterations 
30 damaged 
31 very damaged 
32 restored by the manufacturer 
33 slightly restored 
34 restorations 
35 worn pushpiece 
36 worn pushpieces 
37 replaced pushpieces 
38 later original crown 
39 period crown 
40 to be restored 
41 partially re-gilt 
42 re-gilt 
43 bow replaced 
44 hinge worn 
45 hinge restored 
46 renumbered
47 hairline
48 2 hairlines
49 multiple hairlines
50 slightly scratched
51 scratched
52 slightly worn
53 very worn
54 very slightly chipped
55 chipped
56 damage
57 very damaged
58 slight restoration (hard enamel
59 restored (hard enamel
60 slight restoration (soft enamel
61 restored (soft enamel
62 restored (soft enamel)
63 period original
64 later original
65 period
66 later
67 custom-made
68 to be restored
69 pearl missing
70 pearls missing
71 paste stone missing
72 paste stones missing
73 precious stone missing
74 precious stones missing
75 outer over glaze
 6 patinated
 7 slightly oxidized 
 8 oxidized 
 9 slightly scratched 
10 scratched 
11 deeply scratched 
12 a dent 
13 2 dents 
14 multiple dents 
15 spotted 
16 slightly worn 
17 worn 
18 very worn 
19 damaged 
20 refreshed 
21 soft over glazed 
22 slightly restored 
23 restored by the manufacturer 
24 restorations 
25 partly rubbed 
26 very well reprinted by the  manufacturer 
27 partially reprinted 
28 very well reprinted 
29 well reprinted 
30 reprinted 
31 luminous reprinted 
32 alterations 
33 period, original 
34 later original 
35 period 
36 later 
37 custom-made 
38 to be restored 
39 slightly oxidized
40 slightly scratched
41 scratched
42 deeply scratched
43 hairline
44 two hairlines
45 multiple hairlines
46 chips(s) or hairline(s) under  bezel, not visible when closed
47 hairline, subsidiary dial
48 hairlines, subsidiary dial
49 chipped subsidiary dial
50 hairline(s) barely visible
51 slightly worn
52 worn
53 very slightly chipped
54 chipped, winding aperture
55 chipped
56 damaged
57 slightly restored
58 restored by the manufacturer
59 restorations
60 soft overglazed
61 partly rubbed
62 alterations
63 period, original
64 later original
65 period
66 later
67 custom-made
68 to be restored
01 original 
02 replaced by the manufacturer 
03 later original 
04 partially replaced 
05 period 
06 later 
07 repaired 
08 damaged 
09 new luminous
 6 patinated 
 7 slightly oxidized 
 8 oxidized 
 9 slightly scratched 
10 scratched
11 plating slightly deteriorated 
12 plating deteriorated 
13 rusted 
14 a dent
15 dents 
16 replacements 
17 lacking elements 
18 later escapement 
19 upgraded 
20 later balance 
21 transformations 
22 alterations 
23 damaged 
24 very damaged 
25 restored by the manufacturer 
26 slightly restored 
27 restorations
28 inscription rubbed
29 re-rhodiumed 
30 re-gilt 
31 period, original 
32 later original 
33 period 
34 later 
35 custom-made 
36 to be overhauled
37 to be restored
a. cleaned 
b. minor 
c. major 
d. broken staff 
* overhaul recommended  (at buyer's expense)
  ** overhaul required  (at buyer's expense)
A select group of watches in this catalog have been assigned a "rarity grade" which will appear in the description heading. The total production number of U. S. made pocket well known and accessible, unlike the large and of early horological examples. Therefore, designed to assist collectors and investors in determining the scarcity of a given timepiece in today's market (#1 is considered common to #10, which is an extremely rare item). The following factors are the basis of assigned rarity levels:  
(c)  Historical importance.
(d)  Condition in relationship to other examples of similar type.
(e) Artistic case design, I.e. enamel, unusual shape or form pieces.
(f) Low survival rate of similar types.
(g) Investment potential for increase in demand and price.
A rarity grade will be assigned to highlight items which offer strong investment potential (generally items of level  5 thru 10). 
We hope this new concept will assist you when making purchasing decisions, and  we encourage you to call 1-800-424-5353 if more information or details are needed.

This grading system is property of  Antiquorum, Geneva Switzerland.  Antiquorum has given express, written permission to use their grading system.